Three cases will be analysed, representing different types of buildings (in terms of buffer capacity, building materials / building time), climates (Central, North, South Europe), and use. These are:

–       Historic fortifications and fortresses (case Utrecht, The Netherlands)
–       Historic public buildings / iconic buildings (case Bologna: Faculty of Engineering Building University of Bologna)
–       Industrial heritage (case Budapest, Óbuda Gasworks)

The different materials, buffer capacity, construction, use, size and shape of these buildings ask for innovative sustainable solutions consisting of new (and also proven) techniques and an integrated approach. Techniques in general are available, but they need to be adapted to the specific characteristics and preservation demands of heritage. Every monumental building is unique and needs tailor made solutions; nevertheless, the models, standards and tools behind these tailor made solutions are not unique.

ReFoMo will provide these models, standards and tools (process approach, concepts, monitoring, diagnosis and assessment). The three different cases will reveal which standards and tools are universal, as well as giving insight in specific models and solutions applicable for different climates, buffer capacity and use.

Case characteristics


1 ReFoMo builds on the results of the PF& project “Climate for Culture” which uses different climate classifications adequate for investigating the interaction between outdoor and indoor climate and its influence on the building. Key criteria are relative humidity and temperature, see also: